Milk proteins provide a natural source of bioactive peptides with potential health benefits and applications in the food industry. The release of these peptides from milk proteins is achieved either by hydrolysis using digestive proteases or by lactic acid bacteria fermentation. Peptides, particularly those derived from milk proteins, can exert a wide range of nutritional, functional and biological activities. Bioactive peptides are inactive within the sequence of the parent protein molecule and can be liberated by gastrointestinal digestion of milk, fermentation of milk with proteolytic starter cultures or hydrolysis by proteolytic enzymes. They should be from 3 to 20 amino acids in size and many of them have multifunctional properties. Bioactive peptides have been isolated from several dairy products including cheese, kefir, milk, and yoghurt. Milk-derived peptides with antimicrobial activity have huge industrial potential, as they have the advantage of being derived from a safe and economical source. The aim of this review study is to introduce bioactive peptides with antimicrobial activities that have been produced from milk proteins.